Levy c. In sum, socialization and cultural norms may play a role in hate crimes and anti-gay behaviors. Individuals in Canada are less likely to engage in anti-gay behaviors than those in the United States due to the differences in cultural norms and pressures Jewel and Morrison Although public opinion on marriage equality remains fairly closely divided, the general public is, for the most part, not divided in its opposition to hate crimes.
We also include the unemployment rate as a control for economic conditions because although the literature is mixed, some research finds a relationship between economic downturns and racially-motivated hate crimes e. In contrast, the increase in reported crime is strongest in the two years following implementation.
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Res. American Journal of Sociology. Brian L.
In: Nelson Todd D. The assumption of strict exogeneity of the regressors for feasible generalized least squares should not be violated by the spatial effect term because it excludes hate crime incidence of the estimated observation state.
The Stata Journal. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 13— Although we cannot settle the debate, it is instructive that the implementation order model performs essentially as well as the policy type model.
The present findings provide the first rigorous quantitative evidence that public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation.
Minor Studies of Aggression: VI. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54 , 46— This result is unsurprising as, with only one exception, when a state enacts a third pro-equality policy it is establishing some type of partnership recognition, which also is associated with an increase in reported hate crime incidence see Table 2.
References Balsam, K. Lannutti, P.