In certain cases, it damaged partners because of therapist counter-transference, who believed it was right to punish the violent person in the couple in order to protect the victim instead of sticking to therapy Merrill and Wolfe, Community Psychol. The scope of domestic violence among lesbian relationships displays the pattern of intimidation, coercion, terrorism, or violence that achieves enhanced power and control for the perpetrator over her partner.
Psychology of Women Quarterly. Law enforcement in two counties are searching for a missing year-old man who disappeared this summer after gambling at a Central City casino. Consequently, LGB partners involved in violence, and people close to them services providers, family, friendsevaluated the battering as less dangerous or not harmful at all, and it usually took a longer time to recognize it as an abuse Dixon and Peterman, ; Barrett, Moreover, the Duluth model, based on the patriarchal ideology, was originally designed just for heterosexual couples; however, it was subsequently applied to LGB perpetrators although in the United States the groups, during the treatment, were often separated according to sexual orientation, even if the programs were mostly the same for both groups Price and Rosenbaum, ; Buttell and Cannon,
However, studies did include recommendations in order to focus on LGB-specific treatment. The act explicitly included a non-discrimination clause that prohibited LGB individuals from being turned away from shelters or other programs funded by The Violence Against Women Act Armstrong et al.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The first outcome of the research included sources, from which we eliminated duplicates, researches published in languages other than English and Italian, contributions from books or sources other than published articles and surveys. In spite of these findings, research has indicated that psychology graduate students and clinicians have the inclination to suggest couples counseling instead of individual counseling for LGB IPV victims more often than for different-gender victims Wise and Bowman, ; Poorman et al.
This happens when the perceived stigma reinforces their own stereotype that homosexual men are less masculine than heterosexual men, or the one that lesbian IPV is harmless because women are not physically strong and dangerous Ristock and Timbang,
This idea arose from another stereotype related to homosexual men being unable to be involved in a stable relationship and often and easily changing partners instead LGB relationship can be as stable as heterosexual ones Gates, Thus, studies mainly focused on internalized minority stressors, such as Internalized Homophobia, establishing that IPV perpetrators addressed their negative emotions, originally self-addressed as homosexuals, to their partners.
Justice 18 — Marriage and family: LGBT individuals and same-sex couples. Moreover, IPV services where more accessible in urban centers where the LGB community was well developed and rooted than in rural areas Jeffries and Kay, ; Ford et al.