Within the pubococcygeal muscle is the anococcygeal ligament, which is a midline graft that extends from the anal cavity to the coccyx. Typical uropathogens e. In addition to the extensive work in rats regarding the urethral striated muscle, human studies have also revealed key differences between males and females.
Also, mast cell-derived IL enhanced immune tolerance and decreased response to infection in the bladder, enhancing the risk of chronic infection [ 86 ]. Sexual dimorphism and androgen regulation of satellite cell population in differentiating rat levator ani muscle.
Initially, it was thought that female rats contained a mixture of fast and slow fibers [ 55 ]. The trigone, a triangular-shaped complex of muscles, is demarcated by the bladder neck distally and the two ureters proximally [ 7 ].
Structure and Innervation in the Human; pp. Table 3 Pelvic floor striated muscle sex difference summary. The urinary microbiota: a paradigm shift for bladder disorders?
Dixon John, Gosling John. Unlike typical skeletal muscles, female sphincter myofibrils are three to five times smaller in diameter than striated muscle from the pelvic floor [ 51 ]. These studies have been performed in female mice or urothelial tissues from female human subjects.
Philadelphia: Elsevier; Can improved understanding of the complex development of male and female LUT stimulate breakthroughs in the diagnosis and management of LUT dysfunction? With new NIH policies in place regarding sex as a biological variable [ 4 ], the review may serve as guide on the current status of sex differences in the LUT at the cellular level and indicate where future research efforts are needed.
Research in this field is still immature, and further investigation is needed to answer questions such as the following: How do sex differences in urinary microbiome impact susceptibility to urinary tract infections? J Pharmacol Exp Ther.