Different arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions in male and female plants of wild Carica papaya L. Leukemia 14, — Males have one copy of the X chromosome as opposed to females having two copies.
To date, no bisexual or hermaphroditic cycad has been found in the fossil record Gorelick and Osborne American Naturalist — For example in the two lines belonging to genotype 21 only X 1 males were found; neither line produced any X 2 males. UV radiation-induced immunosuppression is greater in men and prevented by topical nicotinamide.
Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, — Bianchi, I.
Since usually men inherit Y chromosomes, they are the only ones to inherit Y-linked traits. If it occurs after sex chromosomes are established, dosage should stay consistent between the sex chromosomes and autosomes, with minimal impact on sex differentiation. Evolution of sexual reproduction Anisogamy Isogamy Germ cell Meiosis Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Gamete spermatozoon ovum Fertilization External fertilization Internal fertilization Sexual selection Plant reproduction Fungal reproduction Sexual reproduction in animals Sexual intercourse Copulation Human reproduction Lordosis behavior Pelvic thrust.
There are 22 pairs of autosomes non-sex chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Direct sex differences, which are usually observable from birth and before puberty, are determined by Y chromosome.
Le Marchand, L. Rinn, J. New Phytologist :5—8. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms.